following are species of the Borrilia burgdorferi what causes Lyme Disease
burgdorferi sensu stricto
Europe, Australia, South America
burgdorferi sensu lato strain
Algeria, Egypt and Tunisia and also Kenya.
Japan, northwest China,
Nepal, Thailand and far eastern Russia. Mongolia. Australia, Europe, South
found in Europe and Asia.
mostly in Europe, asia,
some in north America,
Europe and East Asia
Europe- Portugal, North
Africa and Asia.
U.S. and Europe
U.S. and Europe
B. 31 strain
B. afzelii strain PKo.
B. garinii strain PBi
B. miyamotoi mimics
Japan, Sweden, America
STARI mimics Lyme disease
Worldwide (general): Lyme disease
manifests a wide range of symptoms such as inflammation, skin, neurologic,
cardiac, musculoskeletal ....
1st Stage: Incubation
is 3 to 32 days, then sometimes there is a target-like rash along with
flu like symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias.
2nd Stage: Problems
in Neuro, heart, joints, bursae, tendons, muscle, or bone pains.
3rd Stage: Untreated
people develop Lyme arthritis of large joints.
Borrilia burgdorferi differ somewhat in manifestation of symptoms (even
in the same strain) Examples:
sensu stricto: Arthritis, erythema migrans rash, meningoencephalitis,
and carditis is common.
B. burgdorferi sensu
lato strain: Inflammation of spinal nerve root, a Borrelia
lymphocytoma nodule, and inflammation of the skin.
cord involvement Lymphocytic meningoradiculitis ( intense pain, mostly
in the lumbar and cervical regions, and radiating to the extremities; migrating
sensory and motor disorders of the peripheral nerves, peripheral radiculopathies,
and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities, painful radiculitis (Garin-Bujadoux-Bannwarth
syndrome) and chronic progressive spastic paraparesis ( difficulty
walking, etc.) Bacteria found in NewfoundLand Borrelia afzelii : the
acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans goes into a progressive fibrosing skin
a spirochete very similar to Borrelia garinii, binds to human platelets
and endothelial cells. Once Borrelia burgdorferi binds to human platelets
and endothelial cells, it is transported to the entire body through the
In areas where blood flow is slow,
Borrelia species’ movements are generally stopped. This occurs to establish
infection to tissues nearby.
Between one to three weeks after
an infected tick bite, some people develop a reaction that causes
a flat red rash, along with an array of symptoms such as a
low-grade fever, fatigue, stiff neck, arthritis, lymphadenopathy
and for some neurological manifestations .
Borrelia garinii has a large effect
on dendritic cells by hindering the upregulation of some important molecules
in dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes.
The finding of Borrelia
garinii in Gull Island, Newfoundland, confirms that this particular species
is present in seabird nesting sites on the Atlantic Coast of North America.
This could possibly lead to the introduction of Borrelia garinii into North
Borrilia burgdorferi Bacteria
manifests Lyme Disease
The Bb appears to
change as it goes or mutates. The strains differ
in clinical symptoms and/or presentation as well as geographic distribution.
name Borrelia burgdorferi:
In 1977 numerous people of
Lyme, Connecticut, USA, experienced a severe unknown infection. A local
doctor, Dr. Willy Burgdorfer, by looking at blood under a microscope,
eventually discovered what his infected patients had in common was a spiral
shaped bacterium. In 1981 the bacteria was named the Borrelia burgdorferi
(Bb) and the disease it caused was named Lyme Disease (Borreliosis). It
was found to have been caused by the bite of a tick.
description of the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria:
It is a spirochete.
Is about 0.2 to 0.3 mm in width but range
between 10 to 30 mm in length.
These long, thin, flexible spiral corkscrew-shaped
bacteria are approximately 1000 times larger than viruses.
is not classified as either Gram-positive or Gram-negative. It cannot be
viewed using conventional light microscopy. Dark-field microscopy must
be used to view this spirochete.
It is a flat-wave
Its motility is
provided by periplasmic flagella composed of a basal body, a hook, and
a filament that rotates during movement allowing them to traverse
viscous gel like media and penetrate into tissues and therefore easily
burrows into tendons, muscle cells, bone cells, ligaments, go directly
into organs deep into our cells and can cross the blood brain barrier.
grows more slowly than most other bacteria dividing once after 12-24 hours.
amazing survival mechanisms of the Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete:
The Bb bacteria
has the ability to change into three different sizes and shapes:
Spirochete form having the ability
to penetrate deep into cells and tissues.
When it is placed under conditions of nutrient deprivation or starvation,
or senses that it cannot survive in a
metabolically active state it generates what are known as "cysts" or small
sacs attached to the organism by slender threads. Cysts contain immature
spirochetes (inactive form).They either remain lodged in tissues or eventually
break off from the "cyst" when they again become active reinfecting and
spreading in the system.
L-form: When it senses a poor or
threatening environment such as salt, antibiotics, or most antimicrobials,
they simply lose their cell walls to become
andbecome tiny, about 0.01 microns in diameter.
cluster together in granulomas clumps or accumulate in regions such as
cause inflammation and painful symptoms by taking control of the cell's
protein which eventually release inflammatory cytokines that will automatically
generate pain and and fatigue.
The tip of the Bb
organism has the ability to bind to cells, spin and twirl until it stimulates
the cells own enzymes to digest a part of the membrane, finally allowing
entry. Once inside, the spirochete results in either the death of the cell
or takes up residency within and are able to take control of the host’s
genetic material, which allows them to create proteins that enhance their
ability to survive.
Bb go into L-form
to hide themselves from detection by certain antibiotics or certain other
eradicating agents that kill Lyme bacteria by breaking down the cell wall.
These antibiotics or certain other eradicating agents prove ineffective
against cell wall deficient L-form Bb's.
Bb readily adapts to various hosts...
rabbits, mice, deer, dogs, humans...It is a survivor.
Bb's travel quickly; The Bb has been found
in the head within twelve hours after being bitten by an infected blood
Bb's are able to remain in the human body
for years in a non-metabolic state (cyst form). They can stay there until
their environment is once again conducive for Bb life.
The Bb can readily shift from a dormant
cyst to an active state.
The cysts are extremely resilient and
can withstand extreme freezing and thawing as well as extreme heat, to
survive, hatch and begin to infect again.
The Bb have figured
out how to successfully survive by living inside the immune system cells,(whose
job is to kill bacteria.) Once the Bb is inside these cells,they
are safe as they can no longer be detected by the immune system.
The Bb, by the nature
of its spiral shape is able to attack B-cells by attaching its tip to the
surface and wiggle until it enters.
Bb's favorite cells
to live in are the macrophages. They are the largest and also live the
longest, up to 45 days.
The Bb, once inside
the B-cell, multiplies until it can no longer contain the reproduced Bb's
and it bursts. Some of these Bb's become coated with fragments of cell
membrane and thus escape detection by the immune system by masquerading
as a B-cell until they each have entered into their own cell.
The Bb bacteria
the immune systems' cells and live there camouflaged as macrophages,
go undetected by the immune system. The macrophages job is to
go to injured areas to clean up the debris.
The Lyme bacteria prefers to travel
through collagen (the glue that holds the body together) more than
in the blood. It appears that in order to survive they clog up the lymphatic
system and cause the blood to thicken. This leads to poor blood flow through
the liver and a stickiness to the fluid surrounding the cells.
shown that Bb can rather quickly change surface antigens so that antibodies
made against one strain are effective in killing that strain, but a second
strain having different surface antigens will take up residence in a different
tissue where it escapes detection and survives. For these reasons and others,
it becomes apparent that this particular spirochete has evolved disguises
and biological techniques to guarantee its survival.
sense threatening environment the spirochetes sometimes cluster together
then form a gelatinous mass around themselves for protection against the
threatening agent such as antibiotics or other anti-microbials.
Their knowing how to change, disguise,
evolve, hide when they sense a threatening environment makes them survivors!
has a remarkable way of surviving, thus making it a difficult organism
to destroy within the human body. It has been proven that if specific natural
plant oil can be taken in very low dose for 65 consecutive days that spirochetes
and all Bb forms can no longer sustain life.
The Borrelia burgdorferi creates
nerve poison (neurotoxins). This toxin manifests symptoms of
can invade any system in the body as well as tendons, spinal cord and muscles.
The sooner they are eradicated the less chance of them spreading more widely
or injuring an organ, brain or any system.
disease is caused by the Bb spirochetes. Here are a few other diseases
caused by other types of spirochetes:
Yaws (Treponema pertenue),
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum), Trench mouth (Borrelia vincentii),and Relapsing
fever(Borrelia), Starii, Borrilia Myamotoi.