The Bb Bacteria
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1.The Borrelia's of Lyme
2.The name "Borrelia burgdorferi"
3.The physical description of the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria
4.The amazing survival mechanisms
of the Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete
5.The Toxic Bb Bacteria
6.Other diseases caused by other types of  spirochetes
7. Borrilia List

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The following are  species of the 
Borrilia burgdorferi
what causes Lyme Disease 

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto North America, Europe, Australia, South America
B. burgdorferi sensu lato strain Northern Africa-Morocco, Algeria, Egypt and Tunisia and also Kenya.
Japan, northwest China, Nepal, Thailand and far eastern Russia. Mongolia. Australia, Europe, South America
Borrelia afzelii found in Europe and Asia. 
Borrelia garinii  mostly in Europe, asia, some in north America,
Borrilia  valaisiana Europe and East Asia
Borrilia  lusitaniae Europe- Portugal, North Africa and Asia.
Borrilia  spielmanii Europe
Borrilia  japonica primarily  Japan
Borrilia  tanukii primarily  Japan
Borrilia  turdae primarily  Japan
Borrilia  andersonii U.S. and Europe
Borrilia  bissettii U.S. and Europe
B. 31 strain
B. afzelii strain PKo.
B. garinii strain PBi Japan
B. sinica  China
B. andersonii North America
B. miyamotoi  mimics Lyme disease Japan, Sweden, America
STARI mimics Lyme disease America
Worldwide (general):
 Lyme disease  manifests a wide range of symptoms such as inflammation, skin, neurologic, cardiac,  musculoskeletal ....
1st Stage: Incubation  is 3 to 32 days, then sometimes there is a target-like rash along with flu like symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. 
2nd Stage:  Problems in Neuro, heart, joints, bursae, tendons, muscle, or bone pains. 
3rd Stage:  Untreated people develop Lyme arthritis of large joints.
Each Borrilia burgdorferi differ somewhat in manifestation of symptoms (even in the same strain) Examples: 
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto: Arthritis, erythema migrans rash, meningoencephalitis, and carditis is common. 
B. burgdorferi sensu lato strain: Inflammation of  spinal nerve root, a Borrelia  lymphocytoma nodule, and inflammation of the skin. 
B garinii: Spinal cord involvement Lymphocytic meningoradiculitis ( intense pain, mostly in the lumbar and cervical regions, and radiating to the extremities; migrating sensory and motor disorders of the peripheral nerves, peripheral radiculopathies, and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities, painful radiculitis (Garin-Bujadoux-Bannwarth syndrome) and chronic progressive spastic paraparesis ( difficulty walking,  etc.) Bacteria found in NewfoundLand
Borrelia afzelii : the acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans goes into a progressive fibrosing skin process. 
Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete very similar to Borrelia garinii, binds to human platelets and endothelial cells. Once Borrelia burgdorferi binds to human platelets and endothelial cells, it is transported to the entire body through the blood system.
In areas where blood flow is slow, Borrelia species’ movements are generally stopped. This occurs to establish infection to tissues nearby.

Between one to three weeks after an infected tick bite, some  people develop a reaction that causes a flat red rash, along with an array of  symptoms such as  a low-grade fever, fatigue, stiff neck, arthritis,  lymphadenopathy and for some neurological manifestations . 

Borrelia garinii has a large effect on dendritic cells by hindering the upregulation of some important molecules in dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes. 


The finding of Borrelia garinii in Gull Island, Newfoundland, confirms that this particular species is present in seabird nesting sites on the Atlantic Coast of North America. This could possibly lead to the introduction of Borrelia garinii into North America. 



The Borrilia burgdorferi Bacteria 
what manifests Lyme Disease

1.The Borrelia of Lyme Disease (Borreliosis) 

Borrelia are spirochetes (corkscrew shaped). There are 36 known species of Borrelia.See Lyme disease Borrilia list
  • The Bb appears to change as it goes or mutates. The strains differ in clinical symptoms and/or presentation as well as geographic distribution.
2.The name Borrelia burgdorferi:
In 1977 numerous people of Lyme, Connecticut, USA, experienced a severe unknown infection. A local doctor,  Dr. Willy Burgdorfer, by looking at blood under a microscope, eventually discovered what his infected patients had in common was a spiral shaped bacterium. In 1981 the bacteria was named the Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) and the disease it caused was named Lyme Disease (Borreliosis). It was found to have been caused by the bite of a tick. 
3.Physical description of the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria: 
  • Spiral-shaped
  • It is a spirochete.
  • Is about 0.2 to 0.3 mm in width but range between 10 to 30 mm in length.
  • These long, thin, flexible spiral corkscrew-shaped bacteria are approximately 1000 times larger than viruses.
  • Borrelia burgdorferi is not classified as either Gram-positive or Gram-negative. It cannot be viewed using conventional light microscopy. Dark-field microscopy must be used to view this spirochete.
  • It is a flat-wave motile 
  • Its motility is provided by periplasmic flagella composed of a basal body, a hook, and a filament that rotates during movement allowing them  to traverse viscous gel like media and penetrate into tissues and therefore easily burrows into tendons, muscle cells, bone cells, ligaments, go directly into organs deep into our cells and can cross the blood brain barrier. 
  • This spirochete grows more slowly than most other bacteria dividing once after 12-24 hours.
4.The amazing survival mechanisms of the Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete:
    The Bb bacteria has the ability to change into three different sizes and shapes: 
  • Spirochete form having the ability to penetrate deep into cells and tissues. 
  • Cysts Form: When it is placed under conditions of nutrient deprivation or starvation, or senses that it cannot survive in a metabolically active state it generates what are known as "cysts" or small sacs attached to the organism by slender threads. Cysts  contain immature spirochetes (inactive form).They either remain lodged in tissues or eventually break off from the "cyst" when they again become active reinfecting and spreading in the system.
  • L-form: When it senses a poor or threatening environment such as salt, antibiotics, or most antimicrobials, they simply lose their cell walls to become L-form and become tiny, about 0.01 microns in diameter.
    • L-form can cluster together in granulomas clumps or accumulate in regions such as the joints. 
    • L-form bacteria cause inflammation and painful symptoms by taking control of the cell's  protein which eventually release inflammatory cytokines that will automatically generate pain and and fatigue. 
  • The tip of the Bb organism has the ability to bind to cells, spin and twirl until it stimulates the cells own enzymes to digest a part of the membrane, finally allowing entry. Once inside, the spirochete results in either the death of the cell or takes up residency within and are able to take control of the host’s genetic material, which allows them to create proteins that enhance their ability to survive.
  • Bb go into L-form to hide themselves from detection by certain antibiotics or certain other eradicating agents that kill Lyme bacteria by breaking down the cell wall. These antibiotics or certain other eradicating agents prove ineffective against cell wall deficient L-form Bb's.
  • Bb readily adapts to various hosts... rabbits, mice, deer, dogs, humans...It is a survivor.
  • Bb's travel quickly; The Bb has been found in the head within twelve hours after being bitten by an infected blood sucking insect.
  • Bb's are able to remain in the human body for years in a non-metabolic state (cyst form). They can stay there until their environment is once again conducive for Bb life. 
  • The Bb can readily shift from a dormant cyst to an active state. 
  • The cysts are extremely resilient and can withstand extreme freezing and thawing as well as extreme heat, to survive, hatch and begin to infect again.
  • The Bb have figured out how to successfully survive by living inside the immune system cells,(whose job is to kill bacteria.)  Once the Bb is inside these cells,they are safe as they can no longer be detected by the immune system.
  • The Bb, by the nature of its spiral shape is able to attack B-cells by attaching its tip to the surface and wiggle until it enters. 
  • Bb's favorite cells to live in are the macrophages. They are the largest and also live the longest, up to 45 days. 
  • The Bb, once inside the B-cell, multiplies until it can no longer contain the reproduced Bb's and it bursts. Some of these Bb's become coated with fragments of cell membrane and thus escape detection by the immune system by masquerading as a B-cell until they each have entered into their own cell.
  • The Bb bacteria enters the immune systems' cells and live there camouflaged as macrophages, thereby go undetected by the immune system. The macrophages job is to go to injured areas to clean up the debris.
  • The Lyme bacteria  prefers to travel through collagen (the glue that holds the body together) more than in the blood. It appears that in order to survive they clog up the lymphatic system and cause the blood to thicken. This leads to poor blood flow through the liver and a stickiness to the fluid surrounding the cells. 
  • Experiments have shown that Bb can rather quickly change surface antigens so that antibodies made against one strain are effective in killing that strain, but a second strain having different surface antigens will take up residence in a different tissue where it escapes detection and survives. For these reasons and others, it becomes apparent that this particular spirochete has evolved disguises and biological techniques to guarantee its survival.
  • When spirochetes sense threatening environment the spirochetes sometimes cluster together then form a gelatinous mass around themselves for protection against the threatening agent such as antibiotics or other anti-microbials.
  • Their knowing how to change, disguise, evolve, hide when they sense a threatening environment makes them survivors! It has a remarkable way of surviving, thus making it a difficult organism to destroy within the human body. It has been proven that if specific natural plant oil can be taken in very low dose for 65 consecutive days that spirochetes and all Bb forms can no longer sustain life.
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5.The Toxic Bb Bacteria
The Borrelia burgdorferi creates nerve poison  (neurotoxins). This toxin manifests symptoms of Lyme disease. 

The spirochetes can invade any system in the body as well as tendons, spinal cord and muscles. The sooner they are eradicated the less chance of them spreading more widely or injuring an organ, brain or any system.

Lyme disease is caused by the Bb spirochetes. Here are a few other diseases caused by other types of spirochetes
Yaws (Treponema pertenue), Syphilis (Treponema pallidum), Trench mouth (Borrelia vincentii),and Relapsing fever(Borrelia), Starii, Borrilia Myamotoi.
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Bone Pain. Is it Babesia, Bartonella, or Lyme or both or all of the above? 
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This page last updated November 15th, 2013